Knowing the history of the women’s movement in Brazil is very important, because, thanks to them, we have advanced in conquests that certainly would not come spontaneously in a society with a patriarchal structure like ours.
Until recently, the Civil Code (1916) defined women as incapable, dependent on their father or husband. A married woman needed her husband’s authorization to travel, receive an inheritance, work outside the home or acquire assets.
With regard to women’s suffrage, Brazilian women won this right, after much struggle and pressure from feminist movements, only from 1932, a period in which the image of women represented those who work as nurses, teachers, secretaries and, of course, wives. dedicated to the home.
In the 1950s, pressure from the women’s movement, especially lawyers Romy Medeiros and Orminda Bastos, led the National Congress to approve, after ten years of discussion, the Civil Code of August 27, 1962, putting an end to legally entitled to guardianship of husbands over their wives if they wanted to work outside the home, receive an inheritance or travel.
The 1960s and 1970s were difficult years, especially for women, who were forbidden to gather and organize. Many were arrested, tortured, exiled and even killed. Despite this, they manage to create the Feminine Movement for Amnesty. This brought together mothers and wives who had their children and husbands exiled or imprisoned by the National Security Law. After the Amnesty Law was enacted, the movement continued to fight for redemocratization in Brazil.
With the achievement of redemocratization, Brazilian women gained more protagonism in government with the creation, in 1985, of the National Council for Women’s Rights (CNDM).
With 26 seats during the election for the Constituent Assembly, they fought valiantly for the inclusion of laws that favored women.
In addition to legal equality between men and women, maternity leave, incentives for female work, through protective norms; shorter term for retirement based on length of service and contribution by women.
The first Police Station for the Defense of Women was opened in São Paulo on August 6, 1985, specializing in assisting victims of domestic aggression and cases of violence against women.
With the increase in female schooling and the democratic stabilization of the country, the objectives of the feminist movement were adapting according to the dynamics of society, and in the 90s, women began to demand greater participation in public life, conquering the obligatoriness of the parties guarantee quotas of 30% of women candidates for the legislature.
In 2006, Law 11.340/2006 was sanctioned, in honor of nurse Maria da Penha Maia Fernandes, who suffered two assassination attempts by her husband, who assaulted her for six years. The first attempt was with a firearm and left her paraplegic; the second was by electrocution and drowning.
The punishment to him came after 19 years. It is important to know that, before 2006, cases of violence against women were supported by Law nº 9.099/95, which regulates crimes of lesser offensive potential. That is, almost always, the aggressor’s sentence was converted into service to the community.
All these liberating achievements would not be possible without the tireless struggle of strong and courageous women, who faced many challenges and the resistance even of other women, who saw submission as the only way of life.
Today, thanks to the feminist struggle, we know that it is possible to advance even further, towards a society in which men don’t just offer us flowers, but, above all, respect!
Source: BdF Paraná
Editing: Peter Carrano
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