For the first time in history, the IBGE sought to count and identify the quilombola population in the country. Using the self-declaration criterion, 1.32 million quilombolas were counted in the country and in Paraná, there are 7,113 quilombolas, being the 20th state in number of members of this population group and the second in the South Region. For leaders and activists of quilombola communities, this survey will contribute to the elaboration of public policies.
According to the publication of the IBGE report, “the census survey on the quilombola population and its demographic, geographic and socioeconomic characteristics had the support of community leaders of this ethnic group was paramount, both in supporting the field work for mapping communities, and in the guide procedures for census takers, which ensured the visitation of all territories in the country.”
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For researcher and activist Isabela Cruz, this is an important achievement for public authorities to influence public policies.
“It is not just an achievement for the quilombolas, but for the Brazilian population as a whole, because from this we can look at the data and visualize this diversity and have more knowledge of who we are. For years, quilombola leaders have been guiding the need to count the quilombola population throughout the national territory because with this data we can know where to focus politically to combat the historical inequalities of our country”, he says.
Quilombolas outside the territories
Among the data, it is noteworthy that only 9.11% of self-declared quilombolas in Paraná reside in quilombola territories. There are 804 people living in these places, and among these, 648 called themselves quilombolas. Carla Galvão, from the State Federation of Quilombola Communities in Paraná, attributes these data to the lack of title. “I think we had problems at the time of the census because several communities still don’t have their territory title. Therefore, we still had many people who did not declare themselves quilombolas because they are far from their communities. So I think the number is a little bit higher,” she says.
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For Isabela, these data are explained by the lack of public policies that guarantee the title. “When we say that many people are outside the territory, we need to ask ourselves why they are outside. We can mention two important points, one is the lack of title that proves that these lands or others belong to quilombola families and because there is still a lack of understanding about this main claim of the communities and, often, violent actions that expel these people from their territories” , explains.
According to IBGE data, the largest group of quilombolas lives in territories in Adrianópolis (325), followed by Reserva do Iguaçu (174) and Doutor Ulysses (142), but the self-declared population is also in territories of Castro, Cerro Azul, Curiúva and Guaíra. Another 6,465 quilombolas, or 90.89% of this population, live outside officially delimited territories or areas with potential quilombola occupation.
Paraná has, according to a survey by the Clóvis Moura Working Group, 86 quilombola communities. At the moment, according to data from the NGO Terra de Direitos, there are only 39 land regularization processes open at Incra and 38 communities certified at the Palmares Cultural Foundation. According to Kathleen Scalassara, legal advisor for the NGO Terra de Direitos, which monitors these processes, there is a deficit in identifying these communities in the state, which implies in a database for public policies that is also deficient.
:: Quilombolas face difficulties in guaranteeing their right to territory ::
“The difficulty in identifying communities may be a factor that contributes to a number of people who self-declare as minor quilombolas. However, one cannot disregard the process of occupation of the states in the region, which favored the distribution of land to Europeans and their descendants. The quilombolas who remained here were very resistant to structural and institutional racism. Even if to a lesser extent, these data reveal the black contribution to the formation of southern society”, he highlights.
The State officially has ten officially delimited territories: Invernada Paiol de Telha, in Reserva do Iguaçu, and João Surá, in Adrianópolis, both with 148 quilombolas among the total number of residents; Varzeão, in Doutor Ulysses (123); Córrego do Franco, in Adrianópolis (98); Serra do Apon, in Castro (57); Água Morna, in Curiúva, (32); São João, in Adrianópolis (18); and Manoel Ciriaco (Guaíra), Mamãs (Cerro Azul) and Porto Velho (Adrianópolis), the three with no self-declared population.
The data, for Isabela, also reinforce the struggle for the main claim of the quilombolas that walks is access to land. “Without debt, it is a view that it is the first moment of a long process. Looking at IBGE data also shows us that we have a lot of work ahead of us. Our central debate and claim is access to land, to win collective title to land belonging to quilombola communities. These data bring us an important picture for this”, he says.
Source: BdF Paraná
Editing: Lia Bianchini